These are the copies of the final proofs that the artist signs as they are getting the colours and tonal values correct before commencing the print run itself. More commonly seen in intaglio and screen processes, as in litho (on a commercial level) they are approved before printing starts.
Means the same as 'proof' (see above).
A device independent colour space using a 3-dimensional theoretical model which contains all the hues and brightnesses visible to the human eye.
Manipulation of channels, shades, hues, contrast and levels of individual colours before printing to eliminate any colour casts and imbalances from the original or scanned image.
A system for measuring, describing and controlling the performance of colour-capable devices: scanners, digital cameras, monitors and printers. Each device is characterised using a measurement device (usually a spectrophotometer): this involves measuring a specific colour target and comparing the results to a theoretical ideal. The information generated is stored in an ICC Profile.
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black), aka "process colours". A colour system used by printers to combine each colour on a different printing plate to make up a full colour image. 4 colour printing. These are the primary colours of the halftone printing process (offset lithography). Most Giclée printers use RGB however.
A camera that captures information in a digital file, rather than on film. Digital cameras eliminate the film stage of reproducing an image, reducing colour variables and image degradation. A Scanback is a professional back for large format studio photography. The digital back scans directly onto a computer and many are capable of creating files of 300 – 500MB. This process is still very costly however, and requires a sound photographic knowledge.
Any print that is created from a digital file via a computer. In the context of this website, used to distinguish prints made on our Digital Press from Giclee prints.
Dots per inch. The measurement units of the output device quality of print. It refers to the number of dots a printer can print per inch. I.e.: a print at 600dpi will have 36,000 dots on one square inch of the paper (600 x 600). It is also (erroneously) used interchangeably with 'pixels per inch' when describing scanned images. See also Resolution and PPI (pixels per inch).
The information of a digital file is stored in various file formats. The formats are either proprietary (PSD is a PhotoShop file for example) or universal (e.g. JPEG or TIFF).
is the colour range that can be encompassed by a colour-capable device. Each scanner, camera, monitor and printer will have its own gamut.
Term referring to a digital print from a digitised image output from computer to an inkjet printer. It usually refers to a limited edition, fine art print, onto archival quality coated paper, and printed with pigment inks, which are UV stable. The blue Wool scale is a print standards scale set by the Fine Art Trade Guild, and it specifies a score of 6 or above, on paper over 250gsm, to qualify for the title of a Giclée print that has longevity.
A process of painting onto a Giclée edition after it is printed. The artist will usually pick out certain areas to highlight, either to create a texture similar to the original, or to pick out gold and metallic colours that can’t be reproduced.
Refers to a print process where the image is created by a metal plate being etched with acid or scratched on the surface of the printing plate. When the plate is inked up, ink will be pushed into the etched lines or areas and this is what will create the image in reverse directly onto the paper when rolled thorough the press. Processes include etching, engraving, mezzotint, drypoint, aquatint and photo etching.
An early inkjet printer that was first used for reproducing artwork onto fine art papers.
is a range of colour targets for colour characterisation of different devices and media such as scanners and printers. Used for making colour profiles to get consistent colours on different papers.